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A must download for the engg. The corporation has an authorized Share Capital of Rs 1, crore. It will also execute other Hydro-electric Power Projects in the region with consent of the state government. The project is estimated to cost Rs. At present, infrastructure works on the project site are under execution.
Drill Holes at various loca- tions totaling a length of metres as per recommendations of GSI have been made. About 76 hec- tares of land was acquired and acquisition proceedings for above hectares are underway. About 46 kms of roads have also been constructed. About sq. The project is expected to be completed within a period of about seven years and would yield benefits during the Eighth Plan.
It is a set of book keeping principles that enable us to understand and follow energy as it transformed from one form or state to the other. The zeroth law of thermodynamics was enunciated after the first law. It states that if two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they must also be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Equilibrium implies the existence of a situation in which the system undergoes no net charge, and there is no net transfer of heat between the bodies. When one energy form is converted into another, the total amount of energy remains constant. An example of this law is a gasoline engine. The chemical energy in the fuel is converted into various forms including kinetic en- ergy of motion, potential energy, chemical energy in the carbon dioxide, and water of the exhaust gas.
The second law of thermodynamics is the entropy law, which says that all physical processes proceed in such a way that the availability of the energy involved decreases.
The second law declares that the material economy necessarily and unavoidably degrades the resources that sustain it. Entropy is a measure of disorder or chaos, when entropy increases disorder increases.
The third law of thermodynamics is the law of unattainability of absolute zero temperature, which says that entropy of an ideal crystal at zero degrees Kelvin is zero. This law is not needed for most thermodynamic work, but is a reminder that like the efficiency of an ideal engine, there are absolute limits in physics. The steam power plants works on modified rankine cycle in the case of steam engines and isentropic cycle concerned in the case of impulse and reaction steam turbines.
In the case of I. Engines Diesel Power Plant it works on Otto cycle, diesel cycle or dual cycle and in the case of gas turbine it works on Brayton cycle, in the case of nuclear power plants it works on Einstein equation, as well as on the basic principle of fission or fusion.
However in the case of non-conventional energy generation it is compli- cated and depends upon the type of the system viz. It has high thermodynamics efficiency. It is a standard of comparison for all other cycles.
This cycle can be carried out in four pieces of equipment joint by pipes for conveying working medium as shown in Fig. The various advantages of reheating are as follows: The disadvantages of reheating are as follows: First turbine is high-pressure turbine and second turbine is low pressure L. This cycle is shown on T-S Temperature entropy diagram Fig. The arrangement of bleeding the steam at two stages is shown in Fig.
The mercury boiler heats the mercury into mercury vapours in a dry and saturated state. These mercury vapours expand in the mercury turbine and then flow through heat exchanger where they transfer the heat to the feed water, convert it into steam.
The steam is passed through the steam super heater where the steam is super-heated by the hot flue gases. The steam then expands in the steam turbine. The ther- mal efficiency of this cycle is higher than only re- heat or regenerative cycle.
The most common fuel is fossil fuel viz. Engines, gas turbines, and hydro-electric power plants. Uranium 1U as fissionable and 1U as fertile fuel in the case of fission reactors of nuclear power plant and hydrogen as fuel in the case of fusion nuclear reactor. In the case of non-conventional power plants the fuels are according to their characteristics viz. Combustion of the fuel is a must in any energy conversion device. It is defined as rapidly pro- ceeding chemical reaction with liberation of heat and light.
This phenomenon incurved in the case of thermal power plants especially in I. But in the case of fuel cell it is of the nature of chemical reaction i. The capacity of the boilers used for power generation is considerably large compared with other boilers. Due to the requirement of high efficiency, the steam for power generation is produced at high pressures and in very large quantities. They are very large in size and are of individual design depending the type of fuel to be used.
The boilers generating steam for process heating are generally smaller in size and generate steam at a much lower pressure. They are simpler in design and are repeatedly constructed to the same design. Though most of these boilers are used for heating purposes, some, like locomotive boilers are used for power generation also.
In this chapter, some simple types of boilers will be described. A steam generator popularly known as boiler is a closed vessel made of high quality steel in which steam is generated from water by the application of heat. The water receives heat from the hot The hot gases are formed by burning fuel, may be coal, oil or gas. Heating surface of the boiler is that part of the boiler which is exposed to hot gases on one side and water or steam on the other side.
The steam which is collected over the water surface is taken from the boiler through super heater and then suitable pipes for driving engines or turbines or for some industrial heating purpose. A boiler consists of not only the steam generator but also a number of parts to help for the safe and efficient operation of the system as a whole.
These parts are called mountings and accessories. The prime movers to be used for generating electricity could be diesel engine, steam engine, steam turbines, gas turbines, and water turbine. Since we know that, a power plant generated a flow of mechanical or electrical energy by means of generators. When coupling runs the generator, then the generator is a prime mover.
In case of steam power plant, the prime movers is steam engine or steam turbine, which is called, steam prime movers. Presently, the steam turbine has totally replaced steam engine.
The steam is gener- ated in a boiler and is then expanded in the turbine. The output of the steam turbine is utilized to run the generator. The fuel used in the boiler is coal or oil.
This expression of efficiency shows that the efficiency increases with an increase in temperature Tl and decrease in temperature T2. The maxi- mum temperature T1 of the steam supplied to a steam prime mover is limited by material considerations. The temperature T2 temperature at which heat is rejected can be reduced to the atmospheric tempera- ture if the exhaust of the steam takes place below atmospheric pressure. Low exhaust pressure is necessary to obtain low exhaust temperature.
But the steam cannot be exhausted to the atmosphere if it is expanded in the engine or turbine to a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. Under this condition, the steam is exhausted into a vessel known as condenser where the pressure is maintained below the atmosphere by continuously condensing the steam by means of circulating cold water at atmospheric temperature.
A closed vessel in which steam is condensed by abstracting the heat and where the pressure is maintained below atmospheric pressure is known as a condenser. The efficiency of the steam plant is considerably increased by the use of a condenser.
In large turbine plants, the condensate recovery be- comes very important and this is also made possible by the use of condenser. The steam condenser is one of the essential components of all modern steam power plants. Steam condenser are of two types: Surface condenser.
Jet condensers In such condenser even impure water can be used for cooling purpose whereas the cooling water must be pure in jet condensers. Although the capital cost and the space needed is more in surface condensers but it is justified by the saving in running cost and increase in efficiency of plant achieved by using this condenser. Depending upon the position of condensate extraction pump, flow of condensate and arrangement of tubes the surface condensers may be classified as follows: Steam enters at the top and flows downward.
The water flowing through the tubes in one direction lower half comes out in the opposite direction in the upper half Fig. In this condenser the steam passages are all around the periphery of the shell.
Air is pumped away from the centre of the condenser. The condensate moves radially towards the centre of tube nest.
Some of the exhaust steams while moving towards the centre meets the undercooled condensate and pre-heats it thus reducing undercooling. In this condenser Fig. A steam of air flows over the tubes to increase evaporation of cooling water, which further increases the condensation of steam. The condensate can be used as boiler feed water. Cooling water of even poor quality can be used because the cooling water does not come in direct contact with steam. High vacuum about This increases the thermal efficiency of the plant.
The various disadvantages of' the surface condenser are as follows: The capital cost is more. The maintenance cost and running cost of this condenser is high. It is bulky and requires more space. The steam entering the condenser should be evenly distributed over the whole cooling sur- face of the condenser vessel with minimum pressure loss.
The amount of cooling water being circulated in the condenser should be so regulated that the temperature of cooling water leaving the condenser is equivalent to saturation temperature of steam corresponding to steam pressure in the condenser. This will help in preventing under cooling of condensate.
The deposition of dirt on the outer surface of tubes should be prevented. Passing the cooling water through the tubes and allowing the steam to flow over the tubes achieve this. There should be no air leakage into the condenser because presence of air destroys the vacuum in the condenser and thus reduces the work obtained per kg of steam.
If there is leakage of air into the condenser air extraction pump should be used to remove air as rapidly as possible. The temperature of cooling water and the condensate is same when leaving the condensers. Elements of the jet condenser are as follows: Nozzles or distributors for the condensing water. Steam inlet. Mixing chambers: They may be a parallel flow type b counter flow type depending on whether the steam and water move in the same direction before condensation or whether the flows are opposite.
Hot well. In jet condensers the condensing water is called injection water. Low level jet condensers Parallel flow type. The air is removed at the top by an air pump. In counter flow type of condenser the cooling water flows in the downward direction and the steam to be condensed moves upward.
High level or Barometric condenser. The con- denser shell is placed at a height of As compared to low level jet condenser. This condenser does not flood the engine if the water extraction pump fails. A separate air pump is used to remove the air. Ejector Condenser. In this condenser cold water is discharged under a head of about 5 to 6 m through a series of convergent nozzles.
The steam and air en- ter the condenser through a non-return valve. Mix- ing with water condenses steam. Pressure energy is partly convert into kinetic energy at the converging cones. In the diverging come the kinetic energy is partly converted into pressure energy and a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure is achieved so as to discharge the condensate to the hot well.
Water turbine is a prime mover, which uses water as the working substance to generate power. A water turbine uses the potential and kinetic energy of water and converts it into usable me- chanical energy. The fluid energy is available in the natural or artificial high level water reservoirs, which are created by constructing dams at appropriate places in the flow path of rivers.
When water from the reservoir is taken to the turbine, transfer of energy takes place in the blade passages of the unit. Hydraulic turbines in the form of water wheels have been used since ages; presently their application lies in the field of electric power generation. The mechanical energy made available at the turbine shaft is used to run an electric generator, which is directly coupled, to the turbine shaft. The power generated by utilizing the potential and kinetic energy of water has the advantages of high efficiency, operational flexibility, low wear tear, and ease of maintenance.
Despite the heavy capital cost involved in constructing dams and reservoirs, in running pipelines and in turbine installation when compared to an equivalent thermal power plant different countries have tried to tap all their waterpower resources. Appropriate types of water turbines have been installed for most efficient utilization.
A number of hydro-electric power plants have and are being installed in India too to harness the available waterpower in the present crisis of fast idling energy resources. Water hydraulic turbines have been broadly classified as, 1. Impulse 2. Reaction 1. Accordingly a suitable type of turbine needs to be selected to perform the required job. Based upon the basic operating principle, water turbines are categorized into impulse and reaction turbines depending on whether the pressure head available is fully or partially converted into kinetic energy in the nozzle.
Impulse Turbine. Reaction Turbine. Impulse Turbine wherein the available hydraulic energy is first converted into kinetic energy by means of an efficient nozzle. The high velocity jet issuing from the nozzle then strikes a series of suitably shaped buckets fixed around the rim of a wheel Fig. The buckets change the direction of jet without changing its pressure. The resulting change in momentum sets buckets and wheel into rotary motion and thus mechanical energy is made available at the turbine shaft.
The fluid jet leaves the runner with a reduced energy. An impulse turbine operates under atmospheric pressure, there is no change of static pressure across the turbine runner and the unit is often referred to as a free jet turbine.
Important impulse turbines are: Pelton wheel, Turgo-impulse wheel, Girad turbine, Banki turbine and Jonval tur- bine etc. Reaction Turbine wherein a part of the total available hydraulic energy is transformed into kinetic energy before the water is taken to the turbine runner.
A substantial part remains in the form of pressure energy. Subsequently both the velocity and pressure change simultaneously as water glides along the turbine runner. The flow from inlet to outlet of the turbine is under pressure and, therefore, blades of a reaction turbine are closed passages sealed from atmospheric conditions.
The disc has four radial openings, through tubes, which are shaped as nozzles. When the water escapes through these tubes its pressure energy decreases and there is increase in kinetic energy relative to the rotating disc. The resulting reaction force sets the disc in rotation.
The disc and shaft rotate in a direction opposite to the direction of water jet. Important reaction turbines are, Fourneyron, Thomson, Francis, Kaplan and Propellor turbines Francis and Kaplan turbines are widely used at present. The following table lists salient points of difference between the impulse and reaction turbines with regard to their operation and application. All the available energy of the fluid is converted into kinetic energy by an efficient nozzle that forms a free jet.
The jet is unconfined and at atmospheric pres- sure throughout the action of water on the runner, and during its subsequent flow to the tail race. Blades are only in action when they are in front of the nozzle. Water may be allowed to enter a part or whole of the wheel circumference. The wheel does not run full and air has free ac- cess to the buckets.
Casing has no hydraulic function to perform; it only serves to prevent splashing and to guide the water to the tail race. Unit is installed above the tail race. Flow regulation is possible without loss. When water glides over the moving blades, its relative velocity either remains constant or reduces slightly due to friction.
Engineering Economics Wynne, John M. Fossil Fuels Carlson, Kenneth E. Combustion Processes Stallard, G. Scott et al. Steam Generators Jackson, Benjamin W. Fans Gamble, Kris A.
Pumps Seibolt, Lawrence J. Water Treatment Chapman, Richard G. Gas Turbines Smith, Jeffrey M.